Article

Article title EVALUTION MARS ROVERS MOVABILITY FOR THE PURPUSE OF DEVELOPMENT OF LOCOMOTION SYSTEMS AND ALGORITMS OF CONTROL OF NEW GENERATION PLANET ROVERS
Authors M.I. Malenkov, V.A. Volov, N.K. Guseva, E.A. Lazarev
Section SECTION III. GROUND ROBOTICS
Month, Year 01, 2015 @en
Index UDC 629.33.03-83
DOI
Abstract The purpose of research represented in the current article is studying of the American mars-rover exploitation successful experience, analyzing of reasons and ways of correction of the detected faults, as well as the choice of the upcoming trends in designing and algorithms of control of the new generation planet rovers. Spirit and Opportunitу mars-rovers, which were delivered to Mars in 2004, and Curiosity mars-rover, that began operating in 2012, set the very high standard of perfection for all further Martian expeditions in terms of operational life, durability, characteristics of vision system, navigation, telecommunications, thermal conditions control as well as operating level of the mechanism and program parts of the control systems. Although the mobility of these vehicles, characterized by the average speed and parameters of the overcome (without maneuvering) obstacles, which are the height of steps and rocks, angle of climb of terrain, minimal value of the bearing capacity of soil on which the mars-rover can realize its movement function, cannot be taken as a good example. The time spent on traveling from point A to point B within the limits of the specified area is taken as a generalized characteristic. The more difficult is the route and the less is the set speed, the more significant is the influence on the movability of a planet rover and the degree of adaptation to the terrain as well as physical and mechanical properties of the soil. One of possible ways to improve the movability of the vehicle is using of combined propulsions integrated with adaptive suspensions. This makes it possible to combine several different ways of movement and adaptation of the propulsion to the surface in one self-propelled chassis. If sensors of forecasting of required values of cross-country ability and floatation are included in the navigation contour, optimal algorithms of change of the ways, regimes and directions of movement can be designed. Development and project implementation of the new technical solutions will let to provide fundamentally different, much higher degree of the planet rovers movability.

Download PDF

Keywords Mars rover; propulsion device; control algorithms; walking mechanism; adaptive suspension; locomotion system; movability; passableness.
References 1. Peredvizhnaya laboratoriya na Lune – «Lunokhod-1» [A mobile laboratory on the moon – "Lunokhod-1"], Edited by A.P. Vinogradov. Moscow: Nauka, 1971, Vol. 1, 128 p.
2. Kemurdzhian A.L., Gromov V.V., Cherkasov I.I., Shvarev V.V. Avtomaticheskie stantsii dlya izucheniya poverkhnostnogo pokrova Luny [Automatic station for exploring the surface of the moon cover]. Moscow: Mashinostroenie., 1976, 200 p.
3. Peredvizhnaya laboratoriya na Lune – «Lunokhod-1 [A mobile laboratory on the moon – "Lunokhod-1"], Edited by A. P. Vinogradov. Moscow: Nauka, 1978, Vol. II, 183 p.
4. Malenkov М., Maurete M., Koutchetenko V. et. al. Innovative Mars exploration rover using inflatable or unfolding wheels // Proc. of the Workshop ASTRA’06, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands. – 2006.
5. Bekker M.G. Vvedenie v teoriyu sistem mestnost'-mashina [Introduction to the theory of systems of terrain-machine]: Translation from English. Moscow: Mashinostroenie, 1973, pp. 402-502.
6. Kemurdjian A.L. From the Moon Rover to the Mars Rover, The Planetary Report. CA, USA, 1990, Vol. X, No, 4, pp. 4-11.
7. Kemurdjian A.L. et. al. Small mobile Apparatus for Mars surface studies, Proc. of the 2 nd COSPAR Colloquium in Sopron 22-26 January 1990. Pergomon Press Oxfoad. New York, 1990, P. 113-120.
8. Louis D. Friedman and Thomas Heinsheimer. Reasons to Be Proud Lessons of the Great Rover Adventure, The Planetary Report. CA, USA, 1992, Vol. XII, No. 6, pp. 16-18.
9. Kemurdjian A.L., Gromov V.V., Kazhukalo I.F. et. al. Soviet Development of Planet Rovers in Period 1964-1990, Proc. first int. Symposium 28-30 September 1992 «Planet Rovers: Purpose, Technology and Design». Toulouse, Fr., 1992.
10. Kazhukalo I.F. Printsip shaganiya v dvizhitelyakh transportnykh mashin. Kolesno-shagayushchiy dvizhitel' [The principle of walking in the propulsion vehicles. Wheel-walking mover], Planetokhody [Rovers], Edited by A.L. Kemurdzhiana. Moscow: Mashinostroenie, 1982, pp. 65-107.
11. Kazhukalo I.F. Kolesno-shagayushchiy dvizhitel', kak sredstvo povysheniya prokhodimosti [Wheel-walking mover, as a means of increasing the permeability of], Peredvizhenie po gruntam Luny i planet [Movement through soil of the moon and planets], Edited by A.L. Kemurdzhiana. Moscow: Mashinostroenie, 1986, pp. 141-185.
12. Kazhukalo I.F., Malenkov M.I., Nazarenko B.P. Matematicheskoe modelirovanie i khodovye ispytaniya planetokhodov [Mathematical modeling and tests of Rover wheels], Peredvizhenie po gruntam Luny i planet [Movement through soil of the moon and planets], Edited by A.L. Kemurdzhiana. Moscow: Mashinostroenie, 1986, pp. 186-261.
13. Golombek M.P. et al. Overview of the Mars Pathfinder Mission and Assessment of Landing Site Predictions // Science. – 1997. – Vol. 278. – P. 1743-1748.
14. NASA – Mars Exploration Rover. Available at: http://www.nasa.gov/centers/ames/research/
exploringtheuniverse/exploringtheuniverse-marsexplorationrovers.html. (Accessed 24 February 2015).
15. MSL Curiosity Rover. Available at: http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/. (Accessed 24 February 2015).
16. Brian D. Harrington and Chris Voorhees, The Challenges of Designing the Rocker-Bogie Suspension for the Mars Exploration Rover. Available at: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/
24391914_The_Challenges_of_Designing_the_Rocker-
Bogie_Suspension_for_the_Mars_Exploration_Rover, свободный (Accessed 24 February 2015).
17. Herkenhoff K.E. et. al. In situ observations of the physical properties of the Martian surface, The Martian Surface: Composition, Mineralogy, and Physical Properties, ed. J.F. Bell III. Cambridge University Press, 2008, pp. 451-467.
18. Arvidson R.E. et al. (28 co-authors). Localization and Physical Properties Experiments Conducted by Spirit at Gusev Crater, Science, 2004, Vol. 305, pp. 821-824.
19. Lisov I. Posledniy parad nastupaet [Last parade begins], Novosti kosmonavtiki [The news of cosmonautics], 2010, No. 03, pp. 24-27.
20. Lisov I. Posledniy parad nastupaet [Last parade begins], Novosti kosmonavtiki [The news of cosmonautics], 2010, No. 05, pp. 28-33.
21. Malenkov M.I. et. al. Key technologies of the Moon exploration: realization and perspectives of highly effective locomotion systems for the Moon rovers, Proc. of the 8th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilization of the Moon. Journal of Astronautics. China. – Beijing:
2007, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 105-114.
22. Malenkov M.I., Stepanov V.V. Russian Greating Technologies of Planetary Rover Locomotion Systems, Fifty Years of Space Research. Science. Editor A. Zakharov. Moscow: Space Research Institute, 2009, pp. 257-272.
23. Malenkov M.I. «Sozdanie «Lunokhoda-1» – vydayushcheesya nauchno-tekhnicheskoe dostizhenie XX veka» ["Creation "Lunokhod-1" – outstanding scientific and technical achievement of the twentieth century"], Vestnik FGUP «NPO im. S.A. Lavochkina» [Bulletin of the FSUE "NPO im. S. A. Lavochkin], 2011, No. 01, pp. 13-21.
24. Malenkov M.I. Creation of Lunokhod-1 as an Outstanding Scientific and Technological Achievement of the XX Century, Solar System Research, 2013, Vol. 47, No. 7, pp. 610-617
25. Kraynov A.M., Vorontsov V.A., Malenkov M.I. Prognozirovanie proektnogo oblika lunokhoda kak elementa kosmicheskogo kompleksa otechestvennoy programmy issledovaniya Luny
[Forecasting project the image of the Rover as an element of the space of complex domestic program of the moon exploration], Materialy XLIX chteniy «K.E. Tsiolkovskiy i strategiya kosmonavtiki». RAN [Materials XLIX readings "Tsiolkovsky and strategy of space". Russian
Academy of Sciences]. Kaluga, 2014, pp. 173-174.
26. Abdulkhalikov R.M. et. al. (97 co-authors). Manned Mission to Mars. Editor-in-Chief A.S. Koroteyev. Russian Academy of Cosmonautics named K.E. Tsiolkovsky. Moscow, 2006, 313 p.
27. Iagnemma et. al. Control of robotic vehicles with actively articulated suspensions in rough terrain, Autonomous Robots. Kluwer Academic Publishers. The Netherlands, 2003, No. 14, pp. 5-16.
28. Bartlett P., Wettergreen D., Whittaker W.L. Design of the Scarab Rover for Mobility and Drilling in the Lunar Cold Traps, Proc. International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence «Robotics and Automation in Space». Los Angeles, USA. February, 2008.
29. Ben Amar F. et. al. Performance evaluation of locomotion modes of an hybrid wheel-legged robot for self-adaptation to ground conditions, Proc. of the 8th ESA Workshop «ASTRA 2004». ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, November 2-4, 2004.
30. Leppдnen I. Automatic locomotion mode control of wheel-legged robots // Series A: Research Reports №30, Automation Technology Laboratory, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Helsinki, 2007, 107 p.
31. Reid W. Goktogan A.H., Sukkarieh S.A. Highly Mobile Wheel-on-Leg Planetary Rover for use in a Martian Analogue Environment, Proc.of 13th Australian Space Science Conference, 2013, pp. 273-282.
32. ATHLETE. Available at: https://www.robotics.jpl.nasa.gov/systems/system.cfm?System=11.
(Accessed 27 February 2015).

Comments are closed.