|Article title||UAV GUIDANCE WHEN TRACKING A GROUND MOVING TARGET WITH BEARING-ONLY MEASUREMENS AND DIGITAL ELEVATION MAP SUPPORT|
|Authors||K.V. Andreev, E.Ya. Rubinovich|
|Section||SECTION V. SYSTEM AND CONTROL POINTS|
|Month, Year||01, 2015 @en|
|Abstract||UAV trajectory optimization problem for bearing-only measurements with digital elevation map support is considered. UAV performs both azimuth and elevation angles measurements. Two possible scenarios are considered: moving with constant velocity target along a road and on the Earth surface described by digital elevation map. UAV is assumed to fly with constant velocity and with pitch and yaw angles taken as control function. The first scenario utilizes a road parameterization as a single-parameter curve. The second scenario uses two parameters to describe the Earth surface. Kalman filter equations are written for both scenarios under assumption that parameterized road and Earth surface are continuous and piecewise smooth functions. The problem solution is based on Pontryagin’s maximum principle. Using this principle, an optimum control problem is reduced to two-point boundary problem with boundary conditions given at t=0 and t=T, where the mission time T is fixed and than solved numerically. When target moves along a single-parameter road curve, the received information amount is enough to get precise target motion parameters estimate and trajectory choice doesn’t affect the estimation precision. The most interesting case is a target moving along Earth surface. In this scenario the UAV performs maneuvers both with pitch and yaw control angles.|
|Keywords||UAV; Kalman filter; optimal control.|
|References||1. Stansfield R.G. Statistical Theory of DF Fixing, Journal on Institution of Electrical Engineers, Part IIIA: Radiocommunication, 1947, Vol. 94, pp. 762-770.
2. Koks D. Numerical Calculations for Passive Geolocation Scenarios, Australian Government DoD: Defense Science and Technology Organization, 2007, RR-0319.
3. Peach N. Bearings-only Tracking Using a Set of Range-Parameterized Extended Kalman Filters, IEEE Proc. of Control Theory and Applications, 1995, Vol. 142 (1), pp. 73-80.
4. Aidala V.J., Nardone S.C. Observability Criteria For Bearings-Only Target Motion Analysis, IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 1981, Vol. AES-17, No 2, pp. 162-166.
5. Bar-Shalom Y. Tracking and Data Fusion: A Handbook of Algorithms – YBS-Press, 2011.
6. Pannetier B., Benameur K., Nimier V., Rombaut M. VS-IMM Using Road Map Information for a Ground Target Tracking, In Proc. of 8-th Conference on Information Fusion, 2005, Vol. 1.
7. Oland E., Kristiansen R. Collision and terrain avoidance for UAVs using the potential field method, In Proc. of IEEE Aerospace Conference – 2-9 March 2013, pp. 1-7.
8. Rappaport T.S. Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice – IEEE Press, 1996.
9. Adamy D.L. EW 103: Communications Electronic Warfare – Artech House radar series, 2009.
10. Godara L.C. Smart Antennas – Taylor & Francis, Electrical Engineering & Applied Signal Processing Series. 2014.
11. Liu P.T. An Optimum Approach in Target Tracking with Bearing Measurements, Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications, 1988, Vol. 56, pp. 205–214.
12. Gong, K.F., Hammel, S.E., Hilliard, E.J., Liu, P.T. Optimal Observer Motion For Localization with Bearing Measurements, Computers & Mathematics with Applications, 1989, Vol. 18, pp. 171-180.
13. Kalman R.E. A new approach to linear filtering and prediction problems, Journal of basic Engineering, 1960, Vol. 82, No. 1, pp. 35-45.
14. Liptser R.Sh., Shiryaev A.N. Statistika sluchaynykh protsessov [Statistics of random processes]. Moscow: Nauka, 1974, 696 p.
15. Letov A.M. Dinamika poleta i upravlenie [Flight dynamics and control]. Moscow: Nauka, 1969, 359 p.
16. Moiseev N.N. Elementy teorii optimal'nykh system [Elements of the theory of optimal systems]. Moscow: Nauka. 1975, 530 p.
17. Chernous'ko F.L., Banichuk N.V. Variatsionnye zadachi mekhaniki i upravleniya. Chislennye metody [Variational problems of mechanics and control. Numerical methods]. Moscow: Nauka, 1973, 240 p.
18. Open Digital Elevation Model (OpenDEM). Available at: www.opendem.info.
19. CIGAR CSI, SRTM 90 m Digital Elevation Databse. Available at: http://www.cgiarcsi.org/data/ srtm-90m-digital-elevation-database-v4-1.
20. Davidson P., Oshman Y. Optimization of Observer Trajectories for Bearings-only Target Localization, IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 1999, Vol. 35, pp. 892-902.