|Article title||MONITORING OF UNDERWATER NOISE NEAR VLADIVOSTOK OCEANARIUM|
|Authors||S.V. Gorovoy, A.V. Kiryanov, E.M. Jeldak|
|Section||SECTION I. ACOUSTICS AND HYDROACOUSTICS|
|Month, Year||12, 2015 @en|
|Abstract||The paper describes the results of the study of spectral and cross-spectral characteristics of underwater noise in the frequency range of 30–4000 Hz, registered in the area east of Vladivostok oceanarium located on Russkiy island. The depth in the study area is 20–30 meters; the bottom is sand and stones; and the distance to the shore is 1 nautical mile. This area is characterized by intense traffic. The average time interval between vessels at distances of up to 3 miles from the study area does not exceed two hours. The distance to the nearest anchored vessel was about 3 miles. A receiving system consisting of two vertically spaced omnidirectional hydrophones attached to the drifting buoy was used for receiving underwater noise signals. The signals received by hydrophones were transmitted by cable to a light boat drifting along the buoy. The results of the study of temporal variability of spectral and cross-spectral characteristics of noise in the water area, including the noise from passing vessels near the receiving system, are presented. During the measurement the averaged spectral level at 1 kHz frequency in 1 Hz band was 70–80 dB relative to 1 µPa. The temporal changes of phase relations between the components of cross–spectrum for the vertically spaced hydrophones were registered, including changes in the absence of moving vessels in the line of sight from the boat. At time intervals from a few to tens of seconds, they varied from “complete incoherence” to “complete coherence” in the frequency range from 300 Hz to 4 kHz. These changes can be represented as changes in the intensity distribution of the underwater noise in the vertical plane with time.|
|Keywords||Environmental monitoring; underwater noise; spectral analysis; coherence function; processing of underwater noise signals; noise signal phase fluctuations.|
|References||1. Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 2008, establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive), Official Journal of the European Union, 2008, L164, pp. 19-40.
2. U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy. An Ocean Blueprint for the 21st Century. Final Report. Washington, DC. 2004.
3. McCarthy E. International Regulation of Underwater Sound. New York: Kluwer Academic Publisher, 2004.
4. Robinson S.P. Lepper P.A. Hazelwood R.A. Good Practice Guide for Underwater Noise Measurement. NPL Good Practice Guide No. 133 / National Measurement Office, Marine Scotland. The Crown Estate. 2014. ISSN: 1368-6550.
5. Carey W.M. Evans R.B. Ocean Ambient Noise. Measurement and Theory. New York: Springer, 2011.
6. de Jong C.A.F. Ainslie M.A. Blacquiиre G. Report TNO-DV 2011 C251 Standard for measurement and monitoring of underwater noise, Part II: procedures for measuring underwater noise in connection with offshore wind farm licensing. The Hague. 2011.
7. Tyack P. Gordon J. Thompson D. Controlled Exposure Experiments to Determine the Effects of Noise on Large Marine Mammals, Marine Technology Society Journal, 2004, Vol. 37 (4), pp. 41-53.
8. Rutenko A.N., Gritsenko V.A. Monitoring antropogennykh akusticheskikh shumov na shel'fe o. Sakhalin [Monitoring antropogennyx akusticheckix shumov na shelfe ostrova Sachalin], Akusticheskiy zhurnal [Akusticheskij Zhurnal], 2010, Vol. 56, No. 1, pp. 77-81.
9. Vedenev A.I. Kriterii i rezul'taty akusticheskogo monitoringa rayona kormleniya serykh kitov vblizi stroitel'stva trassy nefteprovoda na shel'fe o. Sakhalin [Criteria and results of acoustic monitoring of gray whale feeding area near pipeline construction at the sea shelf off Sakhalin island], Doklady XII nauchnoy shkoly-seminara imeni akademika L.M. Brekhovskikh
«Akustika okeana», sovmeshchennoy s XXI sessiey Rossiyskogo akusticheskogo obshchestva [Proceedings of the XII-th Brekhovskikh’s Conference "Ocean Acoustics"]. Moscow: GEOS, 2009, pp. 228-233.
10. National Research Council. Marine Mammal Populations and Ocean Noise: Determining when Noise Causes Biologically Significant Effects, Washington, DC: National Academies Press. 2005.
11. Simmonds M.P. Dolman S.J. Jasny M. Parsons E.C. M. Weilgart L. Wright A.J. Leaper R. Marine noise pollution–increasing recognition but need for more practical action, Journal of Ocean Technology, 2014, Vol. 9 (1), pp. 71-90.
12. Review of post-consent offshore wind farm monitoring data associated with licence conditions. A report produced for the Marine Management Organisation. MMO Project, 2014, No. 1031, pp. 194. ISBN: 978-1-909452-24-4.
13. Nathan D. Pirotta M.E. Barton T.R Thompson P.M. Monitoring ship noise to assess the impact of coastal developments on marine mammals, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2014, Vol. 78, pp. 85-95.
14. Problemy monitoringa prirodno-tekhnicheskikh sistem shel'fovykh zon v svyazi s razvitiem neftegazovogo kompleksa Dal'nego Vostoka [Problems of monitoring natural-technical systems of offshore zones in connection with the development of oil and gas complex of the Far East], Ed. by Fatkulina A.A. Vladivostok: Izd-vo DVTGU, 2010, 332 p.
15. Gorovoy S.V. Ispol'zovanie trekhmernykh korrelyatsionnykh funktsiy gidroakusticheskikh shumov dlya tseley ekologicheskogo monitoringa vodnykh rayonov [Use 3D correlation functions of the hydroacoustic noise for environmental monitoring of aquatic areas], Izvestiya YuFU. Tekhnicheskie nauki [Izvestiya SFedU. Engineering Sciences], 2013, No. 9 (146), pp. 69-75.
16. Review of post-consent offshore wind farm monitoring data associated with licence conditions. A report produced for the Marine Management Organisation, pp 194. MMO Project. No: 1031, 2014. ISBN: 978-1-909452-24-4.
17. McKenna M.F. Ross D. Wiggins S.M. Hildebrand J.A. Underwater radiated noise from modern commercial ships, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 2012, Vol. 131 (1), pp. 92-103.
18. Andrew R.K., Howe B.M., Mercer J.A., Dzieciuch M.A. Ocean ambient sound: Comparing the 1960s with the 1990s for a receiver off the California coast, Acoustics Research Letters Online, 2002, Vol. 3 (2), pp. 65-70.
19. Chapman N.R. Price A. Low frequency deep ocean ambient noise trend in the Northeast Pacific Ocean, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 2011, Vol. 129 (5), EL161-EL165.
20. Vedenev A.I. Kochetov O.Yu. Ivanov V.N. Avtonomnye gidroakusticheskie stantsii dlya kontrolya urovnya promyshlennogo shuma i signalov seysmorazvedki na morskom shel'fe [Autonomous bottom hydro-acoustic stations for monitoring of industry noise level and seismic exploration at sea shelf], Doklady XII nauchnoy shkoly-seminara imeni akademika L.M.
Brekhovskikh «Akustika okeana», sovmeshchennoy s XXI sessiey Rossiyskogo akusticheskogo obshchestva [Proceedings of the XII-th Brekhovskikh’s Conference "Ocean Acoustics"]. Moscow: GEOS, 2009, pp. 361-364.
21. Jensen F.B. Kuperman W.A. Porter M.B. Schmidt H. Computational Ocean Acoustics. Second Edition. New York: Springer, 2011.
22. Buckingham M.J. Cross-correlation in band-limited ocean ambient noise fields, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 2012, Vol. 132, No. 4, pp. 2643-2657.
23. Roux P. Kuperman W.A. and the NPAL Group Extracting coherent wave fronts from acoustic ambient noise in the ocean, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 2004, Vol. 116 (4), Part 1, pp. 1995-2003.