Authors R.S. Spiridonov
Month, Year 03, 2016 @en
Index UDC 004.42, 378.14
Abstract Existing open-source Learning Management Systems (LMS) do not have sufficient functionality embedded to allow creation of complex question types and their automated grading. At the same time, a number of studies has been carried out that suggest a lot of methods for automated scoring of complex question types in different disciplines. However, the link is missing between the two that will make it possible to integrate the new scoring methods into the LMS. This study presents extensible solution that allows integrating different input types and adding algorithms for their automated grading. A model and lifecycle for objects of “algorithmic question” type are developed. The lifecycle of each question is managed by functions create(), compile(), render(), and submit() for automated grading on server side. For saving the state of the model a common format is developed that unifies item presentation on different devices and systems. The implementation of the approach is performed in the form of Java module that supports a protocol for integration with the existing LMS. Fault tolerance of the module is achieved by storing the state of object model in database. The usage of this method saves teacher’s time by automating scoring of assigned homework assignments and tests. The upside of the suggested approach is the ability to generate algorithmic question variations, which allows a teacher to assign a unique version of the same task to each student in the group.

Download PDF

Keywords E-Learning; e-assessment; Learning Management Systems; automated scoring; question types; Java; REST
References 1. Krivichev A.I., Sidorenko V.N. Ispol'zovanie otkrytyh sistem upravleniya obucheniem v vuzah [Usage of open-source learning management systems in universities], Informacionnye tekhnologii v obrazovanii [Information Technologies in Edutication]. Tomsk, 2010, pp. 270-273.
2. Question types, Moodle 2.9 documentation. Available at: (date accessed: 23.05.2015).
3. SAMigo Features, Sakai Wiki. Available at: (accessed: 23 May 2015).
4. Becker J.P., Shimada S. The open-ended approach: A new proposal for teaching mathematics. – Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1997.
5. Shermis M., Burstein J. Automated essay scoring versus human scoring: A comparative study, Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 2007, Vol. 6 (2).
6. Dikli S. An overview of automated scoring of essays, Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 2006, Vol. 5 (1).
7. Shermis M.D., Burstein J. Automated Essay Scoring: A Cross-Disciplinary Perspective. Manwah: NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003.
8. Livne N., Livne O.E., Wight C.A. Automated assessment of creative solutions in mathematics through comparative parsing, Creativity: A handbook for teachers. Singapore: World Scientific publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., 2007, pp. 399-419.
9. Livne N., Livne O.E., Wight C.A. System and method of analyzing freeform mathematical responses, U.S. Patent №00846-25702.PROV.PCT. 2007.
10. Fife J.H. Automated scoring of mathematics tasks in the common core era: enhancements to m-rater in support of cbal TM mathematics and the common core assessments, ETS Research Report Series, 2013, 44 p.
11. Masters J. Automated Scoring of an Interactive Geometry Item: A Proof-of-Concept, Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 2010, Vol. 8 (7).
12. Knuth D.E. Section 3.2.1: The Linear Congruential Method, The Art of Computer Programming, Vol. 2: Seminumerical Algorithms, 1997, pp. 10-26.
13. Knuth D.E. On the translation of languages from left to right, Information and control, 1965, Vol. 8 (6), pp. 607-639.
14. Copeland T. Generating parsers with JavaCC. Alexandria: Centennial Books, 2007.
15. Dijkstra E.W. Algol 60 translation : An Algol 60 translator for the x1 and Making a translator for Algol 60, Algol Bulletin No. 10, 1961, pp. 1-20.
16. Pirtle M. MongoDB for Web Development. Addison-Wesley Professional, 2011, 360 p.
17. Richardson L., Ruby S. RESTful Web Services. O'Reilly Media, 2007, 545 p.
18. Hunter J., Crawford W. Java Servlet Programming. 2 nd ed. O’Reilly Media, 2001, 782 p.
19. Mironov A.A., Tsurkov V.I. Transportnye i setevye zadachi s minimaksnym kriteriem [Transportation and network problems with minimax criterion], Zhurnal vychislitel'noj matematiki i matematicheskoj fiziki [Journal of computational mathematics and mathematical physics], 1995, Vol. 35, No. 1.
20. Mironov A.A., Tsurkov V.I. Approximation and decomposition by extremal graphs, Zhurnal vychislitel'noj matematiki i matematicheskoj fiziki [Journal of computational mathematics and mathematical physics], 1993, Vol. 33, No. 2.
21. Mironov A.A., Tsurkov V.I. Open transportation models with a minimax criterion, Doklady Mathematics, 2001, Vol. 64 (3), pp. 374-377.

Comments are closed.