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Article title ALGORITHMS FOR AUTOMATED SELECTION OF THE AREA AS LANDING SITES, AND LANDING OF MANNED AND UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES ACCORDING TO THE ONBOARD OPTICAL-ELECTRONIC SYSTEM
Authors V.A. Bondarenko, G.E. Kaplinskiy, S.N. Krjukov, V.A. Pavlova, V.A. Tupikov, P.K. Shulgenko
Section SECTION VII. COMMUNICATION, NAVIGATION AND GUIDANCE
Month, Year 01-02, 2017 @en
Index UDC 623.746.-519 + 623.746.174
DOI
Abstract This paper covers the task of landing site selection automation for safe unmanned and manned aerial vehicles landing. In the first part of this paper aThe method and algorithm for land-ing site selection is are proposed. The method is based on fusion of two stage analysis of aerial images from onboard optical system. First stage of algorithm consists of area height map recon-struction from a set of images taken from onboard optical system with use of stereoscopic effect in the process of straightforward carrier flight. The theoretical basis for the used area height map reconstruction approach is provided so as the results of successful application of the corresponding algorithm to real aerial imagery analysis. At second stage of the automatic landing site selection algorithm the texture analysis of the same area image is performed using the feedforward artificial neural network. A brief description of the artificial neural network architecture used is given and the results of aerial image texture analysis are shown. The second part of a paper describes an algorithm for artificially created reference point detection and recognition on images from onboard optical system of aerial vehicle and an algorithm for automatic landing onto the detected reference point. The test results of automatic landing algorithm onboard of flying laboratory based on the quadrotor are provided. As a result of conducted research the authors have developed a technology for making a computer vision system that carries the tasks of automatic landing site selection for landing the aerial vehicle at unknown terrain, task of relative three-dimensional positioning of aerial vehicle using the images of artificially created reference point and task of automatic AV landing onto the artificially created reference point. Based on helicopter type unmanned aerial vehicle a flying laboratory is developed and presented, equipped with electro-optical system and wireless communication system. Flying laboratory incorporates the algorithm of automatic search and recognition for artificially created reference point from real time imagery by UAV onboard optical system, and algorithm for automatic UAV landing at the detected reference point. The paper contains the field test results of the proposed system, which show its robustness and efficiency. The comparative analysis of proposed method with the other existing approaches for landing automation is provided.The test results of automatic landing algorithm onboard of flying laboratory based on the quadrotor are provided.

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Keywords Landing site selection automation; automatic UAV landing; stereogrammetry; texture anal-ysis; artificial neural network.
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