Authors I. A. Kipnis, Yu. M. Vernigorov
Month, Year 08, 2017 @en
Index UDC 581.1
DOI 10.23683/2311-3103-2017-8-88-97
Abstract In most publications related to the water rise in plants the structure of the xylem, which pro-vides rise and distribution of water, is not taken into account. Vessels in leafy plants are formed from porous tracheids, which affects the formation of simple or stair and averoigne perforation plates. Perforation plates are located at the ends of the vessels and connect them with each other. Partitions are rotated in space at a certain angle relative to each other. The model of water rise in a vertical capillary with transverse solid and perforated partitions is described herein for the first time. It is shown that the presence of oblique perforation of the partitions provides a large area of perforations. The angle of inclination of the perforated partitions staircase to the horizontal for different radii of the capillary is estimated and it is shown that the tilt angles are in the range from 550 to 880. The area of walls can be from 2 to 28 times greater than the cross sectional area of the capillaries, which gives the opportunity in the same proportion to increase the area occupied by the perforation and reduce the resistance in moving water. At angles of perforated partitions close to 900 the water in the capillary rises, as in a conventional capillary with an inner longitudinal vertical transparent water partition. It is shown that the different spatial orientation of baffles leads to an increase in the height of water rise in the capillary. An analytical expression for the evaluation of the influence of perforated baffles on the height of water rise in the xylem is obtained, that helps to explain the actual rise of water in deciduous trees, which in reality is many times higher than calculated by the classic formula Jurina. It is shown that with increasing the opaque area of the walls and decreasing the angle of tilt and height location relative to the water surface, height of the water rise increases. The system of partitions in the xylem of plants, like any open system, shows a property of the multiplicativity: action of each of the subsystems (each septum) is added.

Download PDF

Keywords Plant; xylem; vessel; capillary; model.
References 1. Kuznetsov V.V., Dmitrieva G.A. Fiziologiya rasteniy [Plant physiology]. Moscow: Vysshaya shkola, 2006, 742 p.
2. Zeiger T., Lond E. Plant Physiology. 3rd Edition, Sinauer Associated, Inc.Sunderland, MA, 2002 690 p.
3. Yakushkina N.I., Bakhtenko E.Yu. Fiziologiya rasteniy [The physiology of plants]. Moscow: Gumanitarnyy izd. Tsentr VLADOS, 2005, 460 p.
4. Kramer P.D., Kozlovski T.T. Fiziologiya drevesnykh rasteniy [Physiology of woody plants]. Moscow: Lesnaya promyshlennost', 1983, 464 p.
5. Myburg A.A., Sederoff R. Xylem Structure and Function. Encyclopedia of life science. Nature, Publishing Group, 2001, pp. 1-9.
6. Zitte P. [i dr.]. Botanika [Botany]: translated from the German. Moscow: Izd. tsentr «Akademiya», 2008, 367 p.
7. Lotova L.I. Botanika. Morfologiya i anatomiya vysshikh rasteniy [Botany. Morphology and anatomy of higher plants]. 4th ed. extra. Moscow: Knizhnyy dom «LIBROKOM», 2010, 512 p.
8. Pfautsch S., Renard J., Tjoelker M.G., Salih A. Phloem as Capacitor: Radial Transfer of Water into Xylem of Trees Stems Occurs via Symplastic Transport in Ray Parenchyma, Plant Physi-ology March 2015, Vol. 167, No. 3, P. 963-971.
9. Borghetty M., Grace J., Raschi A. Water transport in plant under climatic stress. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1993, 300 p.
10. Harvay B.R. The theory of the rise of sap in trees: Some historical and conceptual remarks, Physics in Perspective, 2013, Vol. 15, pp. 320-358.
11. Kipnis I.A., Vernigorov Yu.M. Pod"em vody v ksileme rasteniy s trakheidal'noy provodimost'yu [Water rise in the xylem of plants with tracheidal conductance], Vestnik Donckogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta [Vestnik of DSTU], 2015, No. 2 (81), pp. 117-125.
12. Shein E.V. Kurs fiziki pochv [Soil physics course]. Moscow: MGU, 2005, 432 p.
13. Teoriya i metody fiziki pochv: kollektivnaya monografiya [Theory and methods of soil physics. Collective monograph], under the ed. E.I. Sheina i L.O. Karpachevskogo. Moscow:
Grif i K, 2007, 616 p.
14. Vernigorov Yu.M., Kipnis I.A. Matematicheskoe modelirovanie raspredeleniya zhidkosti v vetvyashchikhsya kapillyarnykh sistemakh [Mathematical modeling of fluid distribution in branching capillary systems], Vestnik Donskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta [ulletin of the Don State Technical University], 2010, Vol. 10, No. 8 (51),
pp. 1195-1206.
15. Mekhanizm prodvizheniya vody v kapillyarakh ksilemy rasteniy [Mechanism of promotion of water in the xylem capillaries plants], Vestnik Donskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta [Bulletin of the Don State Technical University], 2014, Vol. 14, No. 3 (78),
pp. 78-88.
16. Drevesinovedenie i lesnoe tovarovedenie: uchebnik dlya stud. sred. prof. obrazovaniya [Wood science and forestry commodity: a textbook for stud. environments. prof. education]. 3rd ed., sr. Moscow.: Izd. tsentr «Akademiya», 2010, 272 p.
17. Timonin A.K. Botanika [Botany].:In 4 vol. Vol. 3. Vysshie rasteniya: uchebnik dlya vuzov [Higher Plants]. Moscow: Izd. tsentr «Akademiya», 2007, 352 p.
18. Vernigorov Yu.M., Kipnis I.A. Kapillyarnaya model' drevesnykh stvolov [Capillary model tree trunks], Vestnik Donskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta [Bulletin of the Don State Technical University], 2012, No. 6 (67), pp. 24-40.
19. De Zhen, P.Zh. Smachivanie: statika i dinamika [Wetting: statics and dynamics], Uspekhi fizicheskikh nauk [Successes of physical Sciences], 1987, Vol. 151, Issue 4, pp. 619-681.
20. Kirkolup E.R. Razrabotka ustroystv dlya issledovaniya svoystv zhidkosti v kapillyarnoy gidrodinamike: diss. … kand. tekhn. nauk [The development of devices to study the properties of liquids in capillary hydrodynamics: cand. of eng. sc. diss.]. Barnaul, 2008, 146 p.

Comments are closed.