Authors A. N. Ivanov, V. I. Timoshenko
Month, Year 08, 2017 @en
Index UDC 620.179.16
DOI 10.23683/2311-3103-2017-8-139-150
Abstract This article describes the immersion method of testing seamless pipes by longitudinal scan transverse waves propagating in the pipe wall in a zigzag path perpendicular to the forming one. Described are the characteristics and optimization of pulse-echo inspection method that provides high sensitivity, resolution, and the ability to determine the location of the defect, by using longitudinal and shear waves. Described are the main elements of the ultrasonic piezoelectric transducer designed to generate and detect the high-frequency ultrasonic vibrations, where the polarized ceramic material is often used for the production of active elements, which excites waves of different type, and due to the damper increases the resolution with lower amplitude of the output signal. The selected thickness of the protector based on ideas of constructive interference that allows the passage of waves generated by an active element, so that it was in phase with the wave multipath in the tread. The scheme of distribution of the beam is not focused transducer and the amplitude of the radiation on the angle between the beam and the axle. Considered are two basic principles when using ultrasound, where the first is based on measuring the travel time of ultrasound in the product, and the second on the measurement of the amplitude of the reflected signal. The selected operating frequency control for ultrasonic flaw, detection selected based on the conditions of reducing the level of structural noise and increase the ability to resolve defects. The selected frequency control, which, according to practice, is optimal to control deformed steel medium size. Selected is the material for the Converter providing high efficiency when using the echo method. Calculated is the capacity of the Converter, providing 100% control of the pipe. Given is the condition to ensure the detection of the defect, determined are the value of the threshold electric sensitivity of the flaw detector, the coefficients characterizing the electro-acoustic path, the function that determines the attenuation in the acoustic path, function, defined are the connection of the transducer with the pipe, the function that determines the alignment of piezo finder with generator and amplifier. Determined is the inductance of the generator at maximum amplitude of the acoustic wave. The optimal repetition frequency of the flaw detector instrument, the number of revolutions of the pipe required to provide the required performance, the length of the pipe around the circumference highly in one minute, the width of the ultrasonic beam into the pipe wall without an extension due to the curvature of the interface water-metal, and the length of the path of the ultrasound beam encircling the pipe are determined. Determined are the time of passage of the beam of ultrasonic vibrations from the transducer to the defect in the pipe, the frequency of pulse repetition, and amplitude. Given is the method of the analytical calculation of scanning step, taking into account the ratio of the scan width overlap zone in the piezoelectric transducer and the flux density of the probing pulses. Considered is the choice of parameters of the piezoelectric transducer to ensure testing of the entire cross section of the pipe wall and verification of electroacoustic tract flaw detector. Determined are the width of the transducer and the calculated travel time of the beam of ultrasonic vibrations from the transducer to the defect in the pipe. Optimized is the step size and the maximum performance of control lines is established.

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Keywords Ultrasonic inspection of tubes; piezoelectric transducers; scanning step; electro-acoustic path; the artificial defect.
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